UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONThe upper respiratory tract is made up of organs that are on the outer part of the chest cavity. This includes the larynx, upper trachea, nose and the pharynx. The common types of infections that affect the upper respiratory tract include bronchitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and epiglottitis.

The following measure will help in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections:

Avoid close contact with individuals who are infected

This is because these infections are transmitted from one person to another through air droplets. When the infected person touches their eyes or nose, infection can take place when infected air droplets reach the other person. To avoid people who are infected, one should avoid overcrowded areas like markets and public hospitals. The people who are infected are encouraged to cover the mouth when sneezing or coughing using their elbows or using a napkin. The mouth should not be covered with hands as the hands touch other people and surfaces and therefore the infection can be transmitted easily. This is because the infected bacteria and virus is released in the air in form of droplets and this can be transmitted to another person.

Hand washing

Hand washing is very important in the prevention of different diseases in the body. The hands should be cleaned well making sure to clean all surfaces and this should be done for 20 seconds. The hands should be cleaned after coughing and sneezing or after coming into contact with a person who is infected. It is important to know that the virus can be transferred to another person through a handshake and therefore hand washing plays an important role in the prevention of transmission.

Lifestyle alterations

Reducing stress- stress is one of the things that cause diseases in the body. This is because it lowers immunity making one to be susceptible to diseases. When one is stressed, they are likely to lose appetite and become weak and this lowers their immunity. One can avoid stress by engaging in activities which they enjoy or going out with friends.

Sleeping adequately- rest is important for everyone and it is advisable to balance rest with activity. In a study that was done in a rhinovirus challenge, the people who sleep at least 7 hours are 3 times at a greater risk of developing colds than those who sleep for eight hours. Get enough rest especially if you exercise and take bcaa amino acids.

Taking a healthy diet- it is important to eat healthy as this helps to boost the immunity and prevent upper respiratory tract infections. One should ensure that they take food containing different groups of food like carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and essential fats. It is also important to take raw vegetables and fruits as they help to build the immunity. The people who take healthy meals are at a reduced risk of getting infections. Research has shown that vitamin C helps to reduce the risk of getting colds by more than 50% and the best source of vitamin C is oranges.

Stop smoking- the people who smoke are encouraged to stop smoking as it increases their risk of getting infected. This is because of nicotine that is contained in cigarettes and this affects the respiratory tract increasing the risk of getting infections.


PREVENT THE TRANSMISSION OF TBTuberculosis (TB) is a condition that is caused by a bacteria and it can be transmitted from one individual to another through the air. The disease usually affects the lungs but it can also affect other parts of the body like bones, brain and the kidneys. The disease is dangerous and it can even cause death in extreme cases. There are two forms of TB, namely:

Latent TB- This is where an individual has been exposed to the germs that cause TB but there are no symptoms that are present in the body. In this phase, the disease cannot be transmitted and one can develop an active form of the disease when the immune system is low.

Active TB- This is where one presents with symptoms of the disease and it can be transmitted to another person through the air. The symptoms that the patient presents with include coughing blood, persistent cough for more than two weeks, decreased appetite, general malaise, reduced weight, night sweats, low grade or high grade fever of 380C.

The following tips will help to prevent the spread of the disease:

The patients should ensure that the mouth is covered when sneezing or coughing. A tissue can be used to cover the mouth. The tissue is then put in a sealed bag and thrown away.

The patients who are exposed to TB should be seen by the doctor so that they can be tested for the disease. The only way to confirm whether one has TB is by doing a blood test. This will help to prevent latent TB from becoming active TB where it can be transmitted as the patient will be given medications. Exposure to TB means that one has been around a patient who is suffering from TB and symptoms are present.

The patients who test positive for the disease should adhere to all medications and finish the dose. The medicines are usually taken for six months but this will depend with the form of TB. Failure to adhere to medications will lead to a form of TB called multi drug resistant TB and this is not treated easily.

It is advisable to ventilate the room in places where people are congested. This includes places like schools, prisons and in public transport like trains and buses. The germs that cause TB can easily be transmitted in enclosed areas where air is not moving.

The patients who have active TB are advised to stay at home in the first few weeks as they take drugs to avoid transmitting the disease to others. One can also use a mask to cover the mouth when around friends and relatives. This can be done for the first few weeks to prevent transmission.


It is important to go for testing immediately when one has been exposed to TB. When the disease is diagnosed early, treatment is started early. This reduces the risk of transmission and it also prevents the occurrence of other serious complications. It is important to take all medicines as prescribed and this means taking the right dose, at the right time and for the length of time it has been stipulated. The good news is that the disease can be cured when one takes the medications as prescribed.


PREVENT TAPEWORM INFECTIONTape worm infection usually occurs after taking contaminated meat or food that has not been cooked properly. The best ways to prevent an infection from tape worms is by cooking food well and maintaining personal hygiene especially when one is around animals.

The following tips will help in prevention of worms

Human and animal waste is one way in which the worms can be transmitted. It is advisable to treat animal and human wastes to remove any tapeworms that can be present in them.

It is important to have regulations that govern how animal and human wastes are disposed off. The health officers should ensure that their laws are followed in different parts of the world. This will help to prevent pollution of sea, rivers and other water catchment areas. This is vital especially in areas where fish farming is being done as pollution of water causes the death of fish.

Special care should be taken after cases of flooding as this may be one way in which infection takes place.

The meat that is being sold should be inspected strictly before consumers are allowed to buy. The meat should be examined by inspectors who are trained and then approved fit for human consumption.

It is also advisable to cook the meat well before consumption. Tape worm infection can occur because of eating beef, pork and fish that is not thoroughly cooked. Cooking the meat well ensures that all tapeworm larvae and eggs that are present in it are killed. It is also important to cook well other meats like hare, venison and lamb.

Raw meat like fish, pork and lamb should not be allowed to get into contact with the cooked meat. A plate that has been used to prepare raw meat should not be used to serve cooked meat unless it has been thoroughly washed.

It is important to avoid eating any type of meat that is raw or not cooked thoroughly.

The meat can also be frozen by keeping it at temperatures below 14F as this helps to kill tapeworm eggs and larvae. This should be done for not less than 48 hours but the meat has to be cooked well before consumption as freezing does not guarantee safety.

Pickling, drying and smoking are also other ways in which tape worm eggs and larvae can be killed. However, safety is not guaranteed and the only safe way is cooking the meat thoroughly.

Fruits and other vegetables that are being taken while raw should be cleaned well. This ensures any eggs or larvae on them has been washed off.

The surfaces where one is preparing food should also be cleaned well and high standards of hygiene should be maintained at all times.

It is advisable to wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before preparing food, eating anything, before and after visiting the toilet or coming into close contact with pets or animals.

One should avoid contact with infected animals until they have been treated to avoid becoming infected. It is advisable to deworm animals regularly as this keeps them free of worms and therefore prevents transmission to human beings. This is done by following the advice of veterinary officers as they will give more guidance.

Children should also be kept away from these animals as they can easily become infected with worms.


PREVENTION OF MALARIAMalaria is a serious condition that is caused by a mosquito bite. The prevention will involve protecting against a mosquito bite and taking medicines that prevent the infection. The women who are pregnant and young children are encouraged to avoid travelling to areas where malaria is prevalent. This is because the disease is fatal and in some serious cases, it can cause death.

The following tips will help in the prevention of malaria:

It is advisable to stay indoors when it is dark because this is the time when mosquitoes are many and they tend to bite. The room where one is staying should be air conditioned or screened as the mosquitoes can also be indoors.

It is advisable to wear clothes that protect the body against mosquito bites. This includes shirts that are long sleeved and long pants. This will cover most parts of the body and this reduces the risk of getting a mosquito bite.

One is encouraged to use a mosquito repellant that contains DEET. This is a repellent that is available in the nearby stores and it is effective in prevention of mosquito bites. The chemical can cause damage on the skin as it can be absorbed. Therefore, in children a concentration of less than 24% in terms of strength should be used.

Using nets that are soaked or sprayed with an insecticide like deltamethrin or permethrin will also help. Is important to know whether these insecticides still work well depending on the part of the country where one stays. This is because in some parts of the globe, the mosquitoes have become resistant to these insecticides and therefore the nets used do not provide much protection. It is advisable to find out from the health experts the insecticides that are effective for use in your local area.

In cases where one is sleeping outdoors or in a room that is not screened, then a mosquito net that is sprayed with an insecticide can be used. The net should be checked frequently to ensure that it does not have any holes. It should also be long enough so that it covers the mattress on all sides and it can be tucked below the mattress.

A spray that is used for the flying insects can be used to spray the dark areas in the house. Mosquitoes usually breed in the dark and damp areas in the house. This can be done daily or once weekly depending with the severity of the situation.

It is advisable to avoid travelling to areas where malaria is prevalent especially for people who are at a higher risk of getting malaria. This includes the women who are pregnant, the young children and the old. It is also advisable to take anti malarial drugs prophylactically to help prevent this disease. It is also important to take the medicines as prescribed as refusal to take the correct dose will make one get infected. This means taking the correct dose at the right time and for the length of days that it has been prescribed. It is important to finish the dose even after returning to areas where malaria is not prevalent as this ensures that all parasites have been eliminated from the body.